image source EPA image caption Only a tiny fraction of Taiwan's population has been vaccinated, the island has so few doses After successfully keeping coronavirus at bay, Taiwan is currently in the grip of its first serious outbreak. The island is desperately seeking vaccines to protect its people, and Taiwan's giant neighbour China has offered to help. But this puts Taiwanese leaders in a dilemma
Should they accept assistance from a country that wants to see Taiwan cease to exist as a self-governing entity?Or, to put it another way, is the virus more important than politics?So far, Taiwan has said no to Beijing.image source AFP/Getty Images image caption Recent polls show many Taiwanese support the government's approach in "safeguarding national sovereignty"The dilemma did not exist until the middle of this month. Up until then, Taiwan had seen only 1,500 or so infections and just 12 deaths. But then cases began to increase sharply. On Thursday alone Taiwan reported 13 deaths
And few people in Taiwan are protected against the virus. Up until this week, Taiwan had received around only 700,000 vaccine doses. Just 1% of the population of 23 million had received a jab.image source Reuters image caption Taiwan had the virus under control. Now soldiers wearing protective suits are disinfecting streets To fight the upsurge in cases, the authorities in Taiwan realised they needed more vaccines - and fast
On Tuesday, Health Minister Chen Shih-chung said two million shots would arrive in June; 10 million by the end of August. "Taiwan is working to expand vaccination, with imported vaccine doses continuing to arrive," wrote Taiwan's President, Tsai Ing-wen, on Twitter. The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites. View original tweet on Twitter The island does not have to look far for help. . A series of spokespeople in Beijing have made it clear that China is willing to supply the island with the vaccines it needs. But saying yes would not be an easy political decision for Taiwan because the two sides are political foes
Taiwan's leaders favour more independence for the island, something China forcefully resists. Beijing believes Taiwan is part of its own territory, and wants it to unify with the mainland. It pressures Taiwan - and the world - to accept this position. Prof Steve Tsang, of the School of Oriental and African Studies in London, laid out Taiwan's dilemma
The state-run Global Times ran a headline accusing Ms Tsai of ignoring the mainland's kindness - and pleas for jabs from her own people. Taiwan's president has hit back in a bid to bolster her position. On Wednesday, she said China had scuppered the island's negotiations to secure supplies of the Pfizer/Bio NTech vaccination. "We reject outside interference in our work to bring vaccines to Taiwan, and oppose attempts to exploit vaccine supply for political purposes," she wrote
Ms Tsai is keen to paint China as a hindrance, not a help. media caption Why it is normal for some people to experience short-term side effects from Covid-19 vaccines In the end, Prof Tsang believes Taiwan's president will survive this difficult patch, however she resolves the vaccine dilemma. That is partly because many people in Taiwan do not want Chinese-made vaccines; they worry about their safety and efficacy. He said it was also because this was a manageable situation. "Taiwan has captured our imagination at the moment because it has done so well before," said Prof Tsang
He said that success should help keep infections relatively low, and prevent the issue of vaccines causing Ms Tsai lasting political damage.. × Purchase access to the journal Buy this article and get unlimited access and a printable PDF ($30.00) - Sign in or create a free account Rent this article from Deep Dyve Sign in to download free article PDFs Sign in to access your subscriptions Purchase access to the journal Buy this article and get unlimited access and a printable PDF ($30.00) - Sign in or create a free account Rent this article from Deep Dyve . Tea-based drink with chewy bubbles"Boba tea" redirects here. For the company, see Boba Tea Company. Bubble tea (also known as pearl milk tea, bubble milk tea, or boba tea or boba; Chinese: 珍珠奶茶; pinyin: zhēn zhū nǎi chá, 波霸奶茶; bō bà nǎi chá; or 泡泡茶; pào pào chá in Singapore) is a tea-based drink that originated in Taiwan in the early 1980s.  It most commonly consists of tea accompanied by chewy tapioca balls ("boba" or "pearls"), but it can be made with other toppings as well
These variations are often either blended using ice cream, or are smoothies that contain both tea and fruit. ToppingsTapioca (boba)Tapioca pearls (boba) are the most common ingredient, although there are other ways to make the chewy spheres found in bubble tea.  The pearls vary in color according to the ingredients mixed in with the tapioca. Most pearls are black from brown sugar. Jelly comes in different shapes: small cubes, stars, or rectangular strips, and flavors such as coconut jelly, konjac, lychee, grass jelly, mango, coffee and green tea. Azuki bean or mung bean paste, typical toppings for Taiwanese shaved ice desserts, give bubble tea an added subtle flavor as well as texture. Aloe, egg pudding (custard), grass jelly, and sago also can be found in many bubble tea shops. Popping boba, or spheres that have fruit juices or syrups inside them, are other popular bubble tea toppings.  Flavors include mango, strawberry, coconut, kiwi and honey melon. Some shops offer milk or cheese foam on top of the drink, giving the drink a consistency similar to that of whipped cream, and a saltier flavor profile. Ice and sugar levelSome bubble tea sellers have tried to market their products by packaging it in unique shapes, like this lightbulb. Offering a fresh change from the traditional takeaway cupwith plastic sealing
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Bubble tea shops often give customers the option of choosing the amount of ice or sugar in their drink.  Sugar level is usually specified in percentages (e.g. 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%), and ice level is usually specified ordinally (e.g. no ice, less ice, normal ice), though they can both be specified ordinally in some shops. PackagingIn Southeast Asia, bubble tea is traditionally packaged in a plastic takeaway cup, sealed with plastic or a rounded cap. New entrants into the market have attempted to distinguish their products by packaging it in bottles and other interesting shapes.  Some have even done away with the bottle and used plastic sealed bags.  Nevertheless, the traditional plastic takeaway cup with a sealed cap is still the most ubiquitous packaging method. Preparation method The traditional way of bubble tea preparation is to mix the ingredients (sugar, powders and other flavorants) together using a bubble tea shaker cup, by hand
Many present-day bubble tea shops use a bubble tea shaker machine. This eliminates the need for humans to shake the bubble tea by hand. It also reduces manpower needs as multiple cups of bubble tea may be prepared by a single human. One bubble tea shop in Taiwan, named Jhu Dong Auto Tea, has taken the human-out-of-the-loop approach. The store does not rely on human manpower at all. All stages of the bubble tea sales process, from ordering, to making, to collection, is fully automated. HistoryMilk and sugar have been added to tea in Taiwan since the Dutch colonization of Taiwan in 1624–1662. There are two competing stories for the discovery of bubble tea.  The Hanlin Tea Room of Tainan claims that bubble tea was invented in 1986 when teahouse owner Tu Tsong-he was inspired by white tapioca balls he saw in the local market of Ah-bó-liâu (鴨母寮, or Yamuliao in Mandarin) .  He later made tea using these traditional Taiwanese snacks.  This resulted in what is known as "pearl tea". Another claim for the invention of bubble tea comes from the Chun Shui Tang tea room in Taichung.  Its founder, Liu Han-Chieh, began serving Chinese tea cold after she observed coffee was served cold in Japan while on a visit in the 1980s.  The new style of serving tea propelled his business, and multiple chains serving this tea were established.  The company's product development manager, Lin Hsiu Hui, said she created the first bubble tea in 1988 when she poured tapioca balls into her tea during a staff meeting and encouraged others to drink it.  The beverage was well received by everyone at the meeting, leading to its inclusion on the menu
It ultimately became the franchise's top-selling product. PopularityAsiaIn the 1990s, bubble tea spread all over East and Southeast Asia with its ever-growing popularity.  In regions like Hong Kong, Mainland China, Japan, Korea, Singapore, Malaysia, etc. , the bubble tea trend expanded rapidly among young people.  In some popular shops, people would line up for more than thirty minutes to get a cup of the drink.  In recent years, the mania for bubble tea has gone beyond the beverage itself, with boba lovers inventing various bubble tea food such as bubble tea ice cream, bubble tea pizza, bubble tea toast, bubble tea sushi, bubble tea ramen, etc. TaiwanIn Taiwan, bubble tea has become more than a beverage, but an enduring icon of the culture and food history for the nation.  In 2020, the date April 30 was officially declared as National Bubble Tea Day in Taiwan.  That same year, the image of bubble tea was proposed as an alternative cover design for Taiwan's passport.  According to Al Jazeera, bubble tea has become synonymous with Taiwan and is an important symbol of Taiwanese identity both domestically and internationally. Hong KongHong Kong is famous for its traditional Hong Kong-style milk tea, which is made with brewed black tea and condensed milk.  While milk tea has long become integrated into people's daily life, the expansion of Taiwanese bubble tea chains, including Tiger Sugar, Youiccha, and Xing Fu Tang, into Hong Kong created a new wave for “boba tea”. Mainland ChinaSince the idea of adding tapioca pearls into milk tea was introduced into China in the 1990s, bubble tea has increased its popularity.  It is estimated that the consumption of bubble tea is 5 times that of coffee in the recent years.  According to data from Qian Zhen Industry Research Institute, the value of the tea-related beverage market in China has reached 53.7 billion yuan (about $7.63 billion) in 2018.  While bubble tea chains from Taiwan (e.g. , Gong Cha and Coco) are still popular, more local brands, like Yi Dian Dian, Nayuki, Hey Tea, etc. , are now dominating the market. In China, young people's growing obsession with bubble tea shaped their way of social interaction. Buying someone a cup of bubble tea has become a new way of thanking someone informally. It is also a favored topic among friends and on social media. SingaporeBubble tea is loved by many Singaporeans. It is also known locally in Chinese as 泡泡茶 (Pinyin: pào pào chá), although the English term is widely used as well. The drink was first sold in Singapore as early as the 1980s but only surged in popularity around the turn of the century.  Then, bubble tea shops were mostly locally owned or by Taiwanese immigrants. Shops were reportedly able to sell 1,000 to 1,500 cups a day. However, the popularity of bubble tea waned in the early 2000s
As a result, most of the bubble tea shops were closed and bubble tea lost its popularity by 2003.  It would take a number of years before it experienced a resurgence as chains such as Gong Cha, Liho and KOI entered the Singapore market. In 2018, the interest in bubble tea rose further again at an unprecedented speed in Singapore, as new brands like The Alley and Tiger Sugar entered the market, as well as local brand Bober Tea; social media also played an important role in driving this renaissance of bubble tea.  Locally made non-drink related bubble tea products such as bubble tea cosmetics, bubble tea cake rolls, pancakes and buns have also popped up in the country. Outside AsiaMauritiusThe first bubble tea shop opened in Mauritius in the late 2012 and since then, there is almost a bubble tea shop in almost every mall on the island.  The bubble tea shop became a popular place for teenagers to hangout. United StatesIn the 1990s, Taiwanese immigrants opened the first bubble tea shop, Fantasia Coffee & Tea, in Cupertino, California.  Since then, chains like Tapioca Express, Quickly, Lollicup and Q-Cup emerged in the late 1990s and early 2000s, bringing the Taiwanese bubble tea trend to the US.  Within the Asian American community, bubble tea is commonly known under its colloquial term "boba". As the beverage gained popularity in the US, it gradually became more than a drink, but a cultural identity for Asian Americans. This phenomenon was referred to as “boba life” by Chinese-American brothers Andrew and David Fung in their music video, “Bobalife,” released in 2013.  Boba symbolizes a subculture that Asian Americans as social minorities could define themselves as, and “boba life” is reflection of their desire for both cultural and political recognition. Other regions with large concentrations of bubble tea restaurants in the United States are the Northeast and Southwest. This is reflected in the coffeehouse-style teahouse chains that originate from the regions, such as Boba Tea Company from Albuquerque, New Mexico, No. 1 Boba Tea in Las Vegas, Nevada, and Kung Fu Tea from New York City.  Albuquerque and Las Vegas have a large concentrations of boba tea restaurants, as the drink is popular especially among the Hispano, Navajo, Pueblo, and other Native American, Hispanic and Latino American communities in the Southwest. A massive shipping and supply chain crisis on the U. S. West coast, coupled with the obstruction of the Suez Canal in March 2021, caused a shortage of tapioca pearls for bubble tea shops in the U
S. and Canada. Potential health concernsIn July 2019, Singapore's Mount Alvernia Hospital warned against the sugar content of bubble tea since the drink had become extremely popular in Singapore. While it acknowledged the benefits of drinking green tea and black tea in reducing risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, arthritis and cancer, respectively, the hospital cautions the addition of other ingredients like non-dairy creamer and toppings in the tea, could raise the fat and sugar content of the tea and increase the risk of chronic diseases. Non-dairy creamer is a milk substitute that contains trans fat in the form of hydrogenated palm oil
The hospital warned that this oil has been strongly correlated with an increased risk of heart disease and stroke. See alsoReferences^ a b c d e f g h Wu, Jiayi (21 December 2020). "What Makes Bubble Tea Popular ? Interaction between Chinese and British Tea Culture". The Frontiers of Society, Science and Technology. 2 (16). doi:10.25236/FSST.2020.021614 (inactive 27 May 2021). CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of May 2021 (link) ^ a b c d e f g "How boba, or bubble tea, went global"
South China Morning Post. 1 January 2020. Retrieved 9 April 2021. ^ a b Tsai, Yueh-Ju; Carvajal, Carolina Forero; Flores, Nicolas Moltedo; Lin, Tsan-Shiun; Yang, Johnson Chia-Shen; Chiang, Yuan-Cheng; Lin, Pao-Yuan (1 November 2019). "Reconstruction of pediatric hand injuries caused by automatic cup-sealing machines in Taiwan". Journal of International Medical Research. 47 (11): 5855–5866. doi:10.1177/0300060519874540. ISSN 0300-0605. PMC 6862881
Retrieved 9 April 2021. ^ Hillocks, R. J. ; Thresh, J. M. ; Bellotti, Anthony (2002). Cassava: Biology, Production and Utilization
CABI. ISBN 978-0-85199-883-1. ^ "Whose Boba Is Best?". The Harvard Crimson. 7 October 2004. Archived from the original on 11 June 2017
Retrieved 30 April 2018. ^ a b c d e f g h By Maggie Hiufu Wong. "The rise of bubble tea, one of Taiwan's most beloved beverages". CNN. Retrieved 9 April 2021. ^ Goldstein, Darra (2015). The Oxford companion to sugar and sweets
Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199313402. ^ a b c Nguyen-Okwu, Leslie (16 March 2019). "Boba Explained: A Sipper's Guide to Taiwan's Signature Drink". Eater. Retrieved 9 April 2021. ^ Wei, Clarissa (16 January 2017). "How Boba Became an Integral Part of Asian-American Culture in Los Angeles"
LA Weekly. Retrieved 14 May 2020. ^ a b "8 crazy boba dishes across Asia that have gone viral". South China Morning Post. 29 July 2019. Retrieved 9 April 2021. ^ a b "Bubble Tea Market Expected to Reach $4.3 Billion by 2027 | AMR". www.alliedmarketresearch.com. Retrieved 15 November 2020. ^ "How to Make Tapioca Pearls with Perfect Texture Every Time"
Honest Food Talks. 8 March 2021. Retrieved 25 April 2021. ^ "Get Your Crash Course on the Bubble Tea Trend". The Spruce Eats. Retrieved 9 April 2021. ^ a b "6 Worth The Drive Coffee Shops Outside of Ottawa"
Bubble Teaology. Archived from the original on 30 July 2019. Retrieved 10 July 2020. ^ "This fully-automated Taiwanese bubble tea store has machine that can make 9 drinks in one go". mothership.sg. Archived from the original on 11 July 2020. Retrieved 10 July 2020. ^ Jones, Edward (13 November 2018). "Who invented bubble tea?"
Taipei Times. Archived from the original on 4 June 2019. Retrieved 4 June 2019. ^ Wu, Valerie (22 March 2021). "Boba Diplomacy: Bubble Tea's Influence on Taiwan's Soft Power". . Glimpse from the Globe. Retrieved 24 April 2021. ^ Tzu-ti, Huang. "Legislator proposes erasing 'China' from Taiwan's passport cover". www.taiwannews.com.tw
Taiwan News. Retrieved 23 April 2020. ^ Hale, Erin. "Taiwan finds diplomatic sweet spot in bubble tea". www.aljazeera.com. Al Jazeera
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Retrieved 9 April 2021. ^ hermes (3 May 2020). "Tightened Covid-19 circuit breaker measures to stay for another week but your favourite bubble tea could still be available". The Straits Times. Retrieved 9 July 2020. ^ a b hermesauto (25 July 2019). "Consuming Singapore: The obsession with bubble tea". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on 9 July 2020
Retrieved 9 July 2020. ^ Gan, Nina (23 October 2019). "The Great Singapore Bubble Tea Mania | campus.sg". . Campus Magazine. Archived from the original on 9 July 2020. Retrieved 9 July 2020. ^ a b "Bubble tea | Infopedia". eresources.nlb.gov.sg
Retrieved 9 April 2021. ^ a b read, History·6 min (19 January 2020). "A Drink from South-East Asia? The History of Bubble Tea". Kopi. . Retrieved 9 April 2021. ^ "Miss having a cup of bubble tea? Try these boba cakes and desserts instead". channelnewsasia.com. Channel News Asia. 19 December 2020. Retrieved 19 January 2021. ^ a b Naidu, Darina (13 January 2020). "Bubble tea: Is it healthy?". lexpress.mu (in French)
Retrieved 18 July 2021. ^ a b Trazo, Talitha Angelica (2020). "Wanna Get Boba?": The Bond Between Boba and Asian American Youth in San Jose, California (Thesis). UCLA. ^ Nguyen, Heather (1 January 2020). "Boba binds you and me: an exploration of boba, Asian American identity, and community". Senior Capstone Projects. ^ Justin Hyde (8 October 2013). "Loan Helps Couple Expand Beyond New Mexico". The Santa Fe New Mexican. ^ "10 best things to do in Las Vegas this weekend, July 28–30"
Las Vegas Review-Journal. 10 December 2020. Retrieved 6 May 2021. ^ Kate Houston, Lucas Wright (27 February 2020). "'No. 1 Boba Tea' expands throughout Las Vegas valley despite pandemic challenges". KLAS-TV. Retrieved 6 May 2021. ^ Hoodline (8 November 2019). "Albuquerque's 5 best spots for inexpensive bubble tea". hoodline.com
Retrieved 20 December 2020. ^ "Kawaii Boba Cafe - Albuquerque, New Mexico". Gil's Thrilling (And Filling) Blog. 9 February 2020. Retrieved 20 December 2020. ^ "The 10 Best Places for Bubble Tea in New Mexico!". Best Things To Do and Places To Go in New Mexico. 4 February 2018
Retrieved 6 May 2021. ^ "No bubble tea this spring? Canada faces boba shortage amid shipping delays". 16 April 2021. " ^ ""West Coast Bubble Tea Shops Brace for Boba Shortage as Cargo Ships Jam Los Angeles Ports"". 20 April 2021. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 July 2019. Retrieved 24 July 2019. CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 July 2019
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